Genre : Noise
ISBN : UIUC:30112115710342
Type book : PDF, Epub, Kindle and Mobi
File Download : 100 page
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In this handbook on a growing public menace, Clifford R. Bragdon applies acoustical engineering and social science to the least understood—yet one of the most serious—environmental hazards of modern society. This book is a precision tool; it gives facts and figures, precise scientific measurements, and accurate data on what noise is, what it does, and how to combat it. The author pinpoints the noise levels—many of them illegal—of automobiles, buses, subways, airplanes, household appliances, and children's toys in numerous charts and tables and relates these data to the measurable social, physical, and psychological damage they do to human beings. He catalogues the "noise-free" claims of manufacturers of these products in an Appendix that speaks for itself. A thorough case study of an area near Philadelphia International Airport and other townships, including five hundred households, the author evaluates existing noise abatement programs on local, state, and federal levels, and finds most of them seriously inadequate. As steps toward the solution to the noise crisis, he proposes a system for rating environmental health, new approaches to community noise management, and a variety of architectural suggestions. The bibliography—probably the most complete and up-to-date source collection on the subject ever assembled—is an invaluable reference work in itself. It lists over five hundred sources, arranged in six major categories: Noise, General; Physical Effects; Psycho-Social Effects; Law; Noise Abatement; and Noise Sources. Noise Pollution is indispensable not only for the concerned citizen but for all those who can, and must, take immediate and effective action in our unquiet crisis: urban planners, architects, hospital administrators, public health officials, transportation executives, lawyers, realtors, sound engineers, manufacturers of transportation equipment and household appliances, and community leaders. It is a vital resource in dealing with the noise crisis that is destroying pleasure, lowering work performance, eroding health, causing physical injury, and even challenging basic human survival.
What is the significance of noise in modernist music and literature? When Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring premiered in Paris in 1913, the crowd rioted in response to the harsh dissonance and jarring rhythms of its score. This was noise, not music. In Sublime Noise, Josh Epstein examines the significance of noise in modernist music and literature. How—and why—did composers and writers incorporate the noises of modern industry, warfare, and big-city life into their work? Epstein argues that, as the creative class engaged with the racket of cityscapes and new media, they reconsidered not just the aesthetic of music but also its cultural effects. Noise, after all, is more than a sonic category: it is a cultural value judgment—a way of abating and categorizing the sounds of a social space or of new music. Pulled into dialogue with modern music’s innovative rhythms, noise signaled the breakdown of art’s autonomy from social life—even the “old favorites” of Beethoven and Wagner took on new cultural meanings when circulated in noisy modern contexts. The use of noise also opened up the closed space of art to the pressures of publicity and technological mediation. Building both on literary cultural studies and work in the “new musicology,” Sublime Noise examines the rich material relationship that exists between music and literature. Through close readings of modernist authors, including James Joyce, T. S. Eliot, Edith Sitwell, E. M. Forster, and Ezra Pound, and composers, including George Antheil, William Walton, Erik Satie, and Benjamin Britten, Epstein offers a radically contemporary account of musical-literary interactions that goes well beyond pure formalism. This book will be of interest to scholars of Anglophone literary modernism and to musicologists interested in how music was given new literary and cultural meaning during that complex interdisciplinary period.
The relationship of changes in hearing acuity to long-term exposure to industrial noise was studied in Federal penitentiaries during the period 1953-59 by the Division of Occupational Health of the U.S Public Health Service. The workers studied were employed in textile mills; wood products and sheet metal products manufacturing; brush, shoe, and clothing factories; and printing. Overall noise levels in these operations ranged from approximately 75 to 110 decibels. Men employed in these plants had their hearing tested periodically. A group of approximately 600 men was maintained during the course of the study. Since replacements were made to take care of turnover, data were collected on 1, 952 different individuals during the study. Of these, 1,070 had preemployment audiograms. Approximately 12,000 men had their hearing tested at the time of admission to the penitentiaries. Findings are compared with four well-known proposed sets of criteria. For hearing conservation purposes the findings are in agreement with the recommendations of the Subcommittee on Noise of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Air Force Regulation 160-3. In general, the damage risk criteria proposed by Rosenblith and Stevens for Broad band noise are also confirmed. The theory that narrow band noise requires more stringent criteria is not substantiated by the findings of these studies. Approximately half of commonly encountered industrial noise would be classed as narrow band by this definition. The lower limit of 50 sones per octave band does not always provide sufficient protection.
An examination of the role of sound in twentieth-century arts. This interdisciplinary history and theory of sound in the arts reads the twentieth century by listening to it—to the emphatic and exceptional sounds of modernism and those on the cusp of postmodernism, recorded sound, noise, silence, the fluid sounds of immersion and dripping, and the meat voices of viruses, screams, and bestial cries. Focusing on Europe in the first half of the century and the United States in the postwar years, Douglas Kahn explores aural activities in literature, music, visual arts, theater, and film. Placing aurality at the center of the history of the arts, he revisits key artistic questions, listening to the sounds that drown out the politics and poetics that generated them. Artists discussed include Antonin Artaud, George Brecht, William Burroughs, John Cage, Sergei Eisenstein, Fluxus, Allan Kaprow, Michael McClure, Yoko Ono, Jackson Pollock, Luigi Russolo, and Dziga Vertov.